A. RESEARCH FIELD
Linking of aspects of Roman religion, economy, military and literature/ linguistics to Romanization and the concept in Hispania, Italia, Dacia, Moesia Inferior and Greek East
The research on the role of the army in the Romanization of the Lower Danube area focused on two main areas: a) the role of the army and of the settlements placed near the military camps for urbanization and Romanization in the area; b) the impact of various populations on the recruitment in the Roman army, first in the auxiliary troops. Provinces of the Lower Danube were border provinces the Empire, so the role of the army, of veterans and of military settlements is extremely important in the integration of this area in the Roman world. Also, the army was for many peregrines one of the main vehicles for accession to Roman citizenship and integration into provincial society. Regarding the military settlements, we have tried to emphasize the possibility of double settlements, a military vicus near the fort, and a civilian vicus outside its protection area. This was emphasized by now only for settlements near the legionary centers on the Rhine and Danube. However, in certain circumstances, dual settlements could have developed. This reality can be seen especially in Moesia Inferior, where before the Roman conquest there were indigenous communities, and power centers of the Thracian kingdom. These indigenous settlements continued to exist after the integration of this area in the Roman Empire, and in addition auxiliary camps emerged military vici. In these settlements, nuclei of Roman citizens appear cives Romans consistentes the basis for future Roman cities. In terms of recruitment of different populations, especially those of Thracian origin of the Balkan provinces, we tried, on military diplomas, to establish some recruitment cycles, of about 25 years, starting very early, even during the reign of the emperor Tiberius. These cycles can be traced to the reign of Marcus Aurelius.
From the economic point of view, we identified that significant common features to emphasize the socio-economic unity of the Roman world are limited by certain factors, such as geographic units and regional cultural traditions; different semantics depending on the subject of production or agencies involved in production and distribution; chronological variability and historical changes affecting industry and trade; diversity of production systems. The research pursued in regional and global context, the following elements:
- identifying the role of the Roman elite in industrial production and trade;
- prosopographical investigation on artisans and merchants from the Western European provinces, individually or as members of civic or professional associations;
- prosopographical investigation on artisans and merchants of the provinces of Lower Danube and the hellenophonical milieu, individually or as members of civic or professional associations, focusing on communities of Romani cives consistentes, Romani cives qui negotiantur etc.
- integration of persons involved in economic activities in their familiar context, taking into account the specific nature of the prosopographical and onomastic records;
- identification of foreigners and immigrants involved in economic activities, the economic mobility being proved to be one of the most common ways of cohesion for Romanitas, on the one hand, and the of the spread of barbarian elements in the Roman Empire, on the other hand;
- shaping a model of socio-economic life of Roman provinces according to economic individuals involved, following the geographical distribution of the sources;
- identifying some economic subunits in the provincial economy, which could provide different models of acculturation;
- explaining the social behavior of the economic elite of Roman provinces;
- identifying the level of integration and of Romanization of the municipal economic elites;
- a dynamic, diachronic and contrastive approach of the economic acculturation process.
We were able to identify and define patterns of monetary finds from Roman sites in the provinces of Dacia and Moesia Inferior. For this we compared the lists of coin finds in these provinces with those of other areas of the Roman Empire (Pannonia Inferior, Pannonia Superior, Raetia, Germania Superior, Germania Inferior). Comparative analysis of numismatic data revealed numerous similarities between the Lower Danube provinces and the neighboring territories. The monetary circulation in the sites of Dacia is part of a regional model that includes the Rhine and Danube Roman provinces. Within this general pattern, there is a monetary pattern of the Dacian sites, whose features can be captured, both in urban, and in military centers of the province. The particular behavior of the Dacian sites occurs, especially during the Severan dynasty, and the days of Philippus Arabs (p the legend “Provincia Dacia”). Also, in the case of Dacia, unlike other western Roman provinces, there were major differences between monetary discoveries of camps and settlements, most likely due to the limited duration of Roman rule in the north of the Danube.
A pattern with particular features was identified in the case of coin finds from Moesia Inferior sites. The main feature of this model is the large number of Greek cities issues, present between AD 161-249. Most provincial coins originated from the Moesian workshops (Tomis, Histria, Marcianopolis etc.) and Thracian workshops (Mesembria, Philippopolis etc.); the presence of some issues from centers belonging to the North Pontic, Macedonian, Micro-Asian (especially Nicaea Bithyniae) or Egyptian centers is explained most likely as a result of commercial activities.
The monetary findings from the sites of Dacia and Moesia Inferior demonstrate the connection of these territories, in a particular manner, to the numismatic realities of the Empire, throughout the existence of the two provinces.
From the linguistic point of view, there were studied aspects of Greco-Latin and Latin-Greek interferences. Although statistically speaking bilingual inscriptions represent a very small percentage of the whole epigraphic material, this raises a problem of great complexity. First, we must distinguish between official bilingual inscriptions, whose necessity is explained by the principle of publishing various legal and private acts. The latter prove a naturally assumed bilingualism. Fortunately, the research of various aspects of bilingualism (e.g. Moesia Inferior) can be supported by the factuality of a series of small, but representative, both official bilingual inscriptions issued by representatives of the Roman state and by provincial bodies of Greek poleis, and private. Interestingly, we find that from the total private bilingual inscriptions, most have been first written in Latin. The choice of language policy could be a random situation with, in our opinion, several reasons. One would be to recognize the supremacy of Latin to Greek as the official language in all territories incorporated into the Roman state. Another explanation could be supported by the onomastic present in these inscriptions, so people who ordered the inscription and the people honored. The anthroponyms mentioned in inscriptions may be an important clue for the Greek and Latin onomastic interference. Also, there have been analyzed aspects related to the phenomenon of Code-Switching, stereotyped formulas and interference glottis.
Religious aspects were thoroughly studied, being evidenced in studies the personal and public piety in the provinces covered by the project, and their impact on the municipal and provincial life.
B. INTERNATIONAL VISIBILITY
Within the project several scientific meetings were organized:
- First Romanization Round-Table, Iaşi, 8.03.2014, in which topics such as economic Romanization and military impact on civilian settlements located next to the limes camps have been discussed.
- European Association of Archaeologists, Istanbul, 10-14.09.2014: within the project a session was organized, named T01S012 The Other” in Action. The Barbarization of Rome and the Romanization of the World” by two members of the team: Alexander Rubel and Roxana-Gabriela Curcă, together with Hans-Ulrich Voss from Römisch-Germanische Kommission des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. The presented papers focused on Romanization, from economic, linguistic, religious and military perspectives. The works will be published in a volume edited within the project. Following the collaboration with Prof. Voss from the prestigious institution Römisch-Germanische Kommission des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts some proposals for future collaboration were crystallized, leading to academic exchanges and the development of new research projects.
- International Symposium on Funerary Anthropology Homines, Funera, Astra, a IV-a ediţie, Alba Iulia, 21-23.09.2014. This event was co-organized by a team member, Roxana-Gabriela Curcă. There were presented papers on time and cause of death from prehistory to the Middle Ages.
- International Symposium Die Barbaren Roms. Inklusion, Exklusion und Identität im Römischen Reich und im Barbaricum (1-3. Jht. N. Chr.), held in Iasi between 24 – 27 September 2014 within the project, in collaboration with DAAD, “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University, Konstanz University, and the Institute of Archaeology Iaşi, aimed, on the one hand, the exchange of new concepts and methodological research results on the historical phenomenon of Romanization, presented by internationally recognized personalities (among which Prof. Dr. M. Rathmann, Universität Eichstätt, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Andreas Bendlin, University of Toronto; Dr. Maurizio Buora, Civic Musei di Udine. Museo Archeologico, Prof. Dr. Kai Brodersen, Erfurt University, Prof. Dr. Ulrich Gottereau Konstanz University), and on the other hand the ability to maintain existing contacts or to establish new contacts between young researchers, whose scientific training in classical studies received decisive impulses through partnerships with similar institutions in Germany.
Also, members of the project team had documentation internships abroad (Germany: Frankfurt – Lucian Munteanu, Alexander Rubel, Berlin – Alexander Rubel, Konstanz – Alexander Rubel, Trier – Iulia Dumitrache and United Kingdom: Oxford – Alexander Rubel).Scientific reports 2013-2014